Peacekeeping has become one of the most important tasks of the United Nations, with more than 55 missions created since 1948. Peacekeeping is one of the only multilateral tools that the member states have to address conflicts in all parts of the world. Over 44,000 troops from 90 countries are deployed today. Drawing on first-hand accounts of participants in past peacekeeping successes and failures, this study focuses on how better to ensure success through the use of leverage as a central tool.
While the threat of military force can be used to compel compliance, other sources of leverage, such as the threat of sanctions or the withdrawal of loans, can also be effective. Economic incentives also provide vital leverage. Moral suasion and leadership skills are critical as well. The choice of key personnel, particularly in the role of the Special Representatives of the Secretary-General, as in the utilization of Jacques Kline in Eastern Slavonia, has also proved be key. These case studies carefully examine how a confluence of tools have been brought to bear in circumstances ranging from East Timor and Namibia.
JEAN KRASNO is Fellow of International Security Studies at Yale University.
BRADD C. HAYES is Milton E. Miles Professor of International Relations at the U.S. Naval War College.
DONALD C. F. DANIEL is Professor at the School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University.